Conventions of Standard English
L.2.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
- Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
- Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
- Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
- Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
- Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
- Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
- Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
- Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
- Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
- Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage ? badge; boy ? boil).
- Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.
Knowledge of Language
L.2.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
- Compare formal and informal uses of English.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
L.2.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
- Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
- Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
- Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
- Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
- Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.
- Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
- Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).