Reading: Foundational Skills: Phonics and Word Recognition ~ Fluency

  • Reading: Foundational Skills

    Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K–5)
    [RF: Reading/Foundational]


    These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system.

    These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will.

    The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.



    Foundational Skills

    Phonics and Word Recognition

    RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

      • Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.


    RF.4.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

      • Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
      • Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.
      • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

    *Words, syllables, or phonemes written in /slashes/refer to their pronunciation or phonology. Thus, /CVC/ is a word with three phonemes regardless of the number of letters in the spelling of
    the word.