Some College-Level Vocabulary which you may need to know for A.P. European History and A.P. World Hi

  • abdicate - to resign a throne, presidency, or position

    abrogate - to abolish or annul; to put an end to; invalidate, nullify, retract, dissolve

    acquisition - the act of acquiring or getting

    adherent - believer, supporter

    advance - to go forward

    advocate - to espouse, to support, or to argue for

    alleviate - to reduce in intensity; to make better

    ameliorate - to make better

    annexation - taking possession of a territory

    ante-  before (prefix)

    antebellum - prewar

    apex - the top

    apparatus - system, machine

    archipelago - a chain of islands

    armaments - weapons

    ascension - rising, elevation to

    assiduous - diligent, hard-working

    autarky - economic self-sufficiency

    autocratic - dictatorial; despotic

    autonomy - self-government

    battalion - an army in battle array; a large number of persons

    bellicose - warlike

    bourgeoisie - the middle class

    boyar - Russian nobleman

    bullion - gold or silver bars

    capital - money available for investment (also, seat of government for a nation)

    capitalism - an economic system based upon the private/individual ownership of property and the competitive pursuit of profit; involves little or no government planning/direction (typically present in democracies but may be present in dictatorships)

    cataract - waterfall

    caudillo - jefe, dictator (Latin America) 

    cede - to yield or grant something

    clerical - pertaining to the clergy

    coercive - forced

    commodity - a product commonly traded such as a major type of crop, mineral, or other natural resource

    communism - an economic system based upon the public/state/government ownership of property and the public sharing of resources and production; involves substantial government planning/direction (typically present in dictatorships but may be present in democracies)

    conscription - a draft, the forcing of all (traditionally male) able-bodied citizens to serve in the army

    consensus - a shared decision or shared opinion; an agreement reached by the majority of a group 

    contest - (verb) to argue/fight over

    contested - fought over

    convoke - to assemble, to gather

    cooperative - a group of workers in which all share in the profits/losses of production equally

    corporation - a business or company with a clear and continous legal structure which offers limited liability to its officers and shareholders

    council - a committee

    counsel - advice (noun); to advise (verb)

    coup d'etat (coup)  - an overthrowing of a government

    culminate - to conclude with

    czar - caesar, tsar, kaiser, emperor

    de facto - in fact, in actuality (as opposed to nominally or in name)

    demagogue - a person, especially an orator or political leader, who gains power & popularity by arousing the emotions, passions, and prejudices of a people

    democracy - a political system in which the people vote (direct democracy) or in which the people elect representatives (indirect democracy; republic)

    demographic - pertaining to population

    dialectic - clash

    diligent - assiduous, hard-working

    directorate - board of directors supervising an organization; administration

    disenfranchised - politically weak or powerless

    disciple - follower

    dissident - opponent/critic, usually of the government

    docile - obedient, tractable, easily controlled

    egalitarian - characterized by a belief in the equality of all people, especially in political, economic, or social life

    emissary - diplomatic representative

    emulate - to imitate

    endorsement - expression of support for

    enfranchise - to grant the power to vote; to liberate, as from servitude

    entrepot - trading center, typically for exports

    evangelization - missionary activity, preaching of a religion in the hope of conversion

    exacerbate - to deteriorate, to worsen

    exploit - to take advantage of, to develop

    faction - a political or religious group, a clique

    factionalism - power struggles among rival political groups

    foreshadow - to predict

    franchise - suffrage, the right to vote

    fraternity - brotherhood

    GNP - gross national product; the total sum of goods and services made by a nation in a year - used as a measure of economic productivity

    hegemony - regional dominance

    heir - the next-in-line to be king/queen, descendant, person who inherits something

    hierarchical - a system of persons or things arranged in a graded order of ranks

    hinder - to hamper, to slow or stop

    ideology - a system of beliefs or principles, usually political

    impede - to stop or slow

    impetus - cause, motivation

    imposition - a burden placed upon a person or group

    impoverished - poor

    incentive - motivation for

    incursion - invasion

    indigenous - native to an area

    indispensable - unable to do without; required

    infrastructure - transportation and communication system

    insubordinate - disobedient

    insurgent - rebel

    isthmus - a narrow strip of land bordered on two sides by water and connecting two larger bodies of land

    jingoistic - ultra nationalistic, strongly patriotic, chauvinistic

    junker - Prussian landowner (A.P. European History)

    legislation - laws

    liability - hindrance, burden, debt

    loya jirga - Afghani tribal council (A.P. World History)

    manumission - freedom from slavery

    martial law - the imposition of military power over designated regions on an emergency basis; military rule

    nationalism - love of country; patriotism

    nationalize - to have the national government take over the ownership and direction of an industry or commercial property, often without compensation to the original investors/owners

    nominal - in name only (as opposed to de facto or in actuality)

    obsolescence - the characteristic of being obsolete or out-of-date in terms of usefulness

    oligarchy - junta, rule by a few

    onerous - burdensome

    outset - the beginning

    papal - pertaining to the papacy or office of the Pope

    penal - pertaining to a prison

    pejorative - having a disparaging, belittling, or derogatory effect or force

    peninsula - a body of land surrounded on three sides by water

    periodical - magazine or newspaper

    populist - appealing to the masses, especially the working class or poor

    post-   after (prefix)

    precede - to come before

    precipitate - to spark, to cause

    precursor - something that comes before; a cause

    predicated upon - built upon/dependent upon

    prerogative - special privilege or right

    presage - to be the forerunner of, to lead to

    proletariat - lower-class urban workers, usually in a factory; sans-culottes

    proliferation - the spread of

    proponent - advocate, supporter

    referendum - a public vote held on a particular issue, usually a proposal for a bond (a long-term public debt note to finance a project)

    regent - caretaker of a government while the king/queen is ill, unavailable, or in his/her minority (a child; too young to govern)

    rescind - to take back

    retention - the keeping possession of

    revisionist - revised, updated, and often non-traditional or modern view of something

    rural - agricultural; pertaining to the countryside

    sans culotte - urban lower-class worker, usually in a factory; proletarian

    secular - non-religious

    stipend - a payment or financial award

    streamline - to make more efficient

    student -  a lover of learning who outlines during his/her nightly reading, considers maps and pictures in his/her reading, actively takes notes and participates in class, and reviews his/her notes for several nights prior to a test

    subdue - to put down (as in a revolt)

    subjugated - made subject to/inferior to

    subscriber - believer, supporter

    subsidy - a government grant of money to support an industry or a group of people

    subsistence - enough for survival

    subvert - to weaken through manipulation, to destabilize

    succeeded/succeeding - came after/following

    taboo - socially inappropriate behavior

    topography - the relief features such as mountains, plains, valleys, etc. shown on a map

    urban - pertaining to a city

    vanguard - the foremost position in an army or fleet advancing into battle; the foremost or leading position in a trend or movement

    vicar - official representative

    zenith - apex, apogee, highest